Human testis specific protein 1 (TPX1) exists in the cytomembrane and cytoplasm of spermatogenic cells from pachytene spermatocytes to elongated spermtids, including pachytene spermatocytes, round spermtids and elongated spermtids. It is localized in the connecting piece, the flagellum, and the acrosome of mature human spermatozoa. The protein level and localization of TPX1 were altered in patients with spermatogenic arrest and in infertile men with oligoasthenoteratospermia syndrome. © 2006 American Society for Reproductive Medicine.
Du, Y., Huang, X., Li, J., Hu, Y., Zhou, Z., & Sha, J. (2006). Human testis specific protein 1 expression in human spermatogenesis and involvement in the pathogenesis of male infertility. Fertility and Sterility, 85(6), 1852–1854. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2005.11.064