Effect of various stimuli (concentration, pH, temperature and salt) have been investigated, in aqueous isosorbide (sugar based) spacer based cationic gemini surfactant with hexadecyl chain (16-Isb-16), using spectroscopic and physico-chemical techniques (dynamic light scattering, DLS; nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR; transmission electron microscopy, TEM; polarizing optical microscopy; POM; zeta (ζ)-potential; count rate; pH and conductometry). An interesting phenomenon of micelle to vesicle transition (MVT) has been observed upon dilution. pH sensitive systems, including micelles and vesicles, are found in the solution without changing the pH externally. For external pH change (in the acidic range), DLS data revealed that vesicles are present near the neutral pH. The morphological transitions were confirmed by TEM and POM. ζ data show the conversion of positively charged aggregates to neutral ones. MVT has also been checked by increasing the temperature or adding a salt (NaCl, NaBr, NaNO3 or sodium salicylate; NaSal). Heating induces a transition from micelles to vesicles near ∼40–45 °C while salt addition causes a reverse effect (vesicle to micelle). The transition has been found to be dependent on concentration/nature of salt. The study provides a simple and effective way of tuning the micellar morphology.
Parikh, K., Singh, S., & Kumar, S. (2020). Self assembly in an aqueous gemini surfactant containing sugar based (isosorbide) spacer. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 13(1), 1848–1857. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2018.01.020