Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are encoded by a large multigene family. PTKs regulate many aspects of metabolism, growth, and cancer progression -- including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival, adhesion and motility, and systemic nutrient homeostasis (Schlessinger 2014; Robinson et al. 2000; Lemmon and Schlessinger 2010). Of the approximately 90 unique PTKs in the human genome, 58 are cell-surface RTKs (receptor tyrosine kinases), which pass once through the plasma membrane (Fig. 1). The extracellular ligand-binding domains translate the rise and fall of circulating polypeptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones into unique patterns of intracellular signals (Lemmon and Schlessinger 2010); cell-cell interactions regulate some RTK family members. In the first part of this chapter, I will summarize the RTK landscape and describe how deep understanding of the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) set the stage to understand RTK signaling. In the second part, I focus upon the insulin receptor signaling cascade and its heterologous regulation, because it has a broad role in metabolic regulation and is my principle interest for the past 30 years.
White, M. F. (2018). Receptor Tyrosine Kinases and the Insulin Signaling System (pp. 121–155). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44675-2_7