Objectives: The aim of this study was to clarify whether pioglitazone suppresses in-stent neointimal proliferation and reduces restenosis and target lesion revascularization (TLR) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Background: Previous single-center studies have demonstrated the anti-restenotic effect of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, pioglitazone, after PCI. Methods: A total of 97 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) undergoing PCI (bare-metal stents only) were enrolled. After PCI, patients were randomly assigned to either the pioglitazone group (n = 48) or the control group (n = 49). Angiographical and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging were performed at baseline and repeated at 6-month follow-up. Primary end points included angiographical restenosis and TLR at 6 months follow-up. Secondary end point was in-stent neointimal volume by IVUS. Results: Baseline glucose level and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level were similar between the pioglitazone group and the control group. Angiographical restenosis rate was 17% in the pioglitazone group and 35% in control group (p = 0.06). The TLR was significantly lower in pioglitazone group than in control group (12.5% vs. 29.8%, p = 0.04). By IVUS (n = 56), in-stent neointimal volume at 6 months showed a trend toward smaller in the pioglitazone group than in the control group (48.0 ± 30.2 mm3 vs. 62.7 ± 29.0 mm3, p = 0.07). Neointimal index (neointimal volume/stent volume × 100) was significantly smaller in the pioglitazone group than in the control group (31.1 ± 14.3% vs. 40.5 ± 12.9%, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Pioglitazone treatment might suppress in-stent neointimal proliferation and reduce incidence of TLR after PCI in patients with T2DM. © 2009 American College of Cardiology Foundation.
Takagi, T., Okura, H., Kobayashi, Y., Kataoka, T., Taguchi, H., Toda, I., … Yoshikawa, J. (2009). A Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized Trial to Assess Efficacy of Pioglitazone on In-Stent Neointimal Suppression in Type 2 Diabetes. POPPS (Prevention of In-Stent Neointimal Proliferation by Pioglitazone Study). JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions, 2(6), 524–531. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2009.04.007