Mice lacking the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor flt-1 (VEGFR-1) die from vascular overgrowth, caused primarily by aberrant endothelial cell division (Kearney JB, Ambler CA, Monaco KA, Johnson N, Rapoport RG, Bautch VL: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor Flt-1 negatively regulates developmental blood vessel formation by modulating endothelial cell division. Blood 2002, 99:2397-2407). Because a second high-affinity VEGF receptor, flk-1, produces a positive endothelial proliferation signal, it was logical to ask whether flt-1 affects developmental blood vessel formation by modulating signaling through flk-1. Differentiated embryonic stem cell cultures lacking flt-1 (flt-1-/-) had increased flk-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, indicating that flk-1 signaling is up-regulated in the mutant background. The selective flk-1 inhibitor SU5416 partially rescued the flt-1-/- mutant phenotype, and this rescue was accompanied by a decrease in the relative amount of flk-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Thus reduced flk-1 signal transduction can partially compensate for the lack of flt-1. The flt-1-/- mutant phenotype was also partially rescued by Flt-1/Fc, a truncated flt-1 that binds and sequesters the VEGF ligand. Taken together, these data show that down-regulation of flk-1 signaling by two different strategies partially rescues the developmental vascular overgrowth seen in the absence of flt-1, and they support a model whereby flt-1 modulates the flk-1 signal at an early point in the pathway.
Roberts, D. M., Kearney, J. B., Johnson, J. H., Rosenberg, M. P., Kumar, R., & Bautch, V. L. (2004). The Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Receptor Flt-1 (VEGFR-1) Modulates Flk-1 (VEGFR-2) Signaling during Blood Vessel Formation. American Journal of Pathology, 164(5), 1531–1535. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)63711-X