Signing and Subtitling on Polish Television: A Case of (In)accessibility

  • Mliczak R
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Accessibility to audiovisual media for the hearing impaired audience in Poland has received considerable attention in recent years (Künstler 2008; Szarkowska 2010). This is part and parcel of a greater awareness concerning the needs of the deaf and hard-of-hearing at both European and national levels. Indeed, Directive 2007/65/EC of the European Parliament and the Council (Web 1) — an amendment to Council Directive 89/552/EEC on the coordination of certain provisions laid down by law, regulation or administrative action in Member States concerning television broadcasting — encourages EU broadcasters to cater for minority groups, including the hearing impaired. In Article 3c, it states that, ‘Member States shall encourage media service providers under their jurisdiction to ensure that their services are gradually made accessible to people with a visual or hearing disability’. In 2011, the Polish Council of Ministers accepted the project of amendment to the National Broadcasting Council Act as part of the implementation of the EU Audiovisual Media Services Directive. This event marked the beginning of the provision of accessible services regulated at national level.




Mliczak, R. (2015). Signing and Subtitling on Polish Television: A Case of (In)accessibility. In Audiovisual Translation in a Global Context (pp. 203–224). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

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