A review of the amino acid metabolism in placental function response to fetal loss and low birth weight in pigs

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Abstract

The fertility of sows mainly depends on the embryo losses during gestation and the survival rate of the post-farrowing piglets. The selection of highly-prolific sows has been mainly focused on the selection of genotypes with high ovulatory quota. However, in the early- and post-implantation stages, the rate of embryo losses was increased with the increase of zygotes. Among the various factors, placental growth and development is the vital determinant for fetal survival, growth, and development. Despite the potential survival of fetuses with deficient placental development, their life-conditions and growth can be damaged by a process termed intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The newborn piglets affected by IUGR are prone to increased morbidity and mortality rates; meanwhile, the growth, health and welfare of the surviving piglets will remain hampered by these conditions, with a tendency to exacerbate with age. Functional amino acids such as glycine, proline, and arginine continue to increase with the development of placenta, which are not only essential to placental growth (including vascular growth) and development, but can also be used as substrates for the production of glutathione, polyamines and nitric oxide to benefit placental function in many ways. However, the exact regulation mechanism of these amino acids in placental function has not yet been clarified. In this review, we provide evidence from literature and our own work for the role and mechanism of dietary functional amino acids during pregnancy in regulating the placental functional response to fetal loss and birth weight of piglets. This review will provide novel insights into the response of nutritionally nonessential amino acids (glycine and proline) to placental development as well as feasible strategies to enhance the fertility of sows.

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Tan, C., Huang, Z., Xiong, W., Ye, H., Deng, J., & Yin, Y. (2022, December 1). A review of the amino acid metabolism in placental function response to fetal loss and low birth weight in pigs. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology. BioMed Central Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-022-00676-5

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