This paper proposes a new soft capacitive-type 3-axis force sensor. The prototype version which can detect a multi-axis force vector is embedded inside 7mm-thick silicone skin, and provides digital output via an I2C bus. Tilted capacitive force transducers were used to measure the force vector; the transducers faced different directions to differentiate the tangential forces. Preliminary experiments were performed and the concept of the tilted force transducers has been proven to have the capability of differentiating the force vector acting on the sensor surface.
Somlor, S., Schmitz, A., Hartanto, R. S., & Sugano, S. (2015). First Results of Tilted Capacitive Sensors to Detect Shear Force. In Procedia Computer Science (Vol. 76, pp. 101–106). Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2015.12.289