The only relevant source for human exposure to dinitropyrenes is diesel engine emissions. Due to this specificity, dinitropyrenes may be used as biomarkers for monitoring human exposure to diesel engine emissions. Only few analytical methods have been described for the quantitation of dinitropyrenes and their metabolites, aminonitropyrenes, and diaminopyrenes. Therefore, for dinitropyrenes, aminonitropyrenes, and diaminopyrenes were selected as model compounds for the development of a sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method (high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry) was to quantify polyaromatic amines and nitroarenes in biological matrices was developed optimal methods by comparing electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. Dinitropyrene was not effectively ionized and diaminopyrene yielded mainly [M .] + ions by electrospray ionization. With APCI and APPI, precursor ions of diaminopyrene and aminonitropyrene were [M + H] + and [M .] - for dinitropyrene. Precursor ions with [M - 30 .] - for dinitropyrene and [M - 30 + H] + for aminonitropyrene were observed. Reversed and normal phase HPLC-MS/MS with ESI, APCI and APPI were optimized separately with respect to unequivocal analyte identification and sensitivity. Normal phase HPLC coupled to APPI-MS/MS gave the highest precision and sensitivity for aminonitropyrene (6%/0.2 pg on column) and dinitropyrene (9%/0.5 pg on column). The limit of detection in spiked rat plasma was 5 pg/100 μL for aminonitropyrene (accuracy 82%) and 10 pg/100 μL for dinitropyrene (accuracy 105%). In plasma of rats treated with dinitropyrene by oral administration, no detectable levels of dinitropyrene but higher aminonitropyrene levels compared with intratracheal instillation were observed. These findings clearly demonstrate that dinitropyrene was absorbed after oral and intratracheal application and that a reduction of nitro groups occurs to a high extent in the reductive environment of the intestine. To our knowledge, this is the first time that aminonitropyrene was observed in plasma after intratracheal or oral administration directly demonstrating the reductive metabolism of dinitropyrene in vivo. © 2004 American Society for Mass Spectrometry.
Straube, E. A., Dekant, W., & Völkel, W. (2004). Comparison of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, and atmospheric pressure photoionization for the analysis of dinitropyrene and aminonitropyrene LC-MS/MS. Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 15(12), 1853–1862. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasms.2004.08.017