Genome-wide allele-specific methylation is enriched at gene regulatory regions in a multi-generation pedigree from the Norfolk Island isolate

7Citations
Citations of this article
26Readers
Mendeley users who have this article in their library.

This article is free to access.

Abstract

Background: Allele-specific methylation (ASM) occurs when DNA methylation patterns exhibit asymmetry among alleles. ASM occurs at imprinted loci, but its presence elsewhere across the human genome is indicative of wider importance in terms of gene regulation and disease risk. Here, we studied ASM by focusing on blood-based DNA collected from 24 subjects comprising a 3-generation pedigree from the Norfolk Island genetic isolate. We applied a genome-wide bisulphite sequencing approach with a genotype-independent ASM calling method to map ASM across the genome. Regions of ASM were then tested for enrichment at gene regulatory regions using Genomic Association Test (GAT) tool. Results: In total, we identified 1.12 M CpGs of which 147,170 (13%) exhibited ASM (P ≤ 0.05). When including contiguous ASM signal spanning ≥ 2 CpGs, this condensed to 12,761 ASM regions (AMRs). These AMRs tagged 79% of known imprinting regions and most (98.1%) co-localised with known single nucleotide variants. Notably, miRNA and lncRNA showed a 3.3- and 1.8-fold enrichment of AMRs, respectively (P < 0.005). Also, the 5′ UTR and start codons each showed a 3.5-fold enrichment of AMRs (P < 0.005). There was also enrichment of AMRs observed at subtelomeric regions of many chromosomes. Five out of 11 large AMRs localised to the protocadherin cluster on chromosome 5. Conclusions: This study shows ASM extends far beyond genomic imprinting in humans and that gene regulatory regions are hotspots for ASM. Future studies of ASM in pedigrees should help to clarify transgenerational inheritance patterns in relation to genotype and disease phenotypes.

Cite

CITATION STYLE

APA

Benton, M. C., Lea, R. A., MacArtney-Coxson, D., Sutherland, H. G., White, N., Kennedy, D., … Griffiths, L. R. (2019). Genome-wide allele-specific methylation is enriched at gene regulatory regions in a multi-generation pedigree from the Norfolk Island isolate. Epigenetics and Chromatin, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13072-019-0304-7

Register to see more suggestions

Mendeley helps you to discover research relevant for your work.

Already have an account?

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free