Objectives. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the time-voltage integral of the QRS complex can improve the electrocardiographic (ECG) identification of left ventricular hypertrophy. Background. Standard ECG criteria have exhibited poor sensitivity for left ventricular hypertrophy at acceptable levels of specificity. However, left ventricular mass may be more closely related to the time-voltage integral of the summed left ventricular dipole than to QRS duration or voltages used in standard ECG criteria. Methods. Standard 12-lead ECGs, orthogonal lead signal-averaged ECGs and echocardiograms were obtained in 62 male control subjects without left ventricular hypertrophy and 51 men with left ventricular hypertrophy defined by echocardiographic criteria (indexed left ventricular mass >125 g/m2). Voltage of the QRS complex was integrated over the total QRS duration in leads X, Y and Z to calculate the time-voltage integral of each orthogonal lead, of the maximal spatial vector complex and of the horizontal, frontal and sagittal plane vector complexes. Results. At matched specificity of 99%, the 73% (37 of 51) sensitivity of the time-voltage integral of the vector QMS complex in the horizontal plane was significantly greater than the 10% sensitivity of the Romhilt-Estes point score, the 16% sensitivity of QRS duration alone, the 22% sensitivity of Cornell voltage, the 33% sensitivity of the 12-lead sum of QRS voltage and the 37% sensitivity of Sokolow-Lyon voltage (each p < 0.001). Sensitivity of the horizontal plane time-voltage integral was also greater than the 10% to 51% sensitivity of the time-voltage integral calculated in the individual X, Y or Z leads (p < 0.01 to < 0.001), the 18% and 35% sensitivity of the time-voltage integrals of the frontal and sagittal plane vectors (p < 0.001) and the 49% sensitivity of the time-voltage integral of the maximal spatial vector complex calculated from all three orthogonal leads (p < 0.001). Comparison of receiver operating characteristic curves confirmed that the superior performance of the horizontal plane time-voltage integral relative to standard and other signal-averaged criteria was independent of partition value selection. Conclusions. These findings suggest that use of the time-voltage integral of the QRS complex, a method that can be readily implemented on commercially available computerized ECG systems, can improve the accuracy of ECG methods for the identification of left ventricular hypertrophy. © 1994.
Okin, P. M., Roman, M. J., Devereux, R. B., Borer, J. S., & Kligfield, P. (1994). Electrocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy by the time-voltage integral of the QRS complex. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 23(1), 133–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/0735-1097(94)90511-8