Conventional approaches to reduce CO2 emissions, including fuel switching among fossil fuels, renewables, nuclear, end-use conservation, and increased efficiency, nearly all lead to reduction in coal use. Carbon removal technologies alone have the potential to allow continued use of coal. All approaches must compete economically, technically, and environmentally for market share within the context of the total energy system. MARKAL, a dynamic energy systems model, was used to simulate this competition through 2025 for the U.S. energy system. Three carbon removal technologies were evaluated: CO2 scrubbing from coal-fired power plant flue gas, CO2 separation during coal gasification, and carbon separation in the Hydrocarb process. CO2 was sequestered in depleted gas wells and the deep ocean, and solid carbon in depleted coal mines. All three technologies evaluated offer a more cost-effective path to CO2 emission reduction than the reference case. Moreover, the ability of pre-combustion methods of carbon removal can be combined with producing motor fuels as well as electric power fuels, a combination that provided greater opportunity for carbon removal. © 1992.
Morris, S. C., Lee, J., Goldstein, G., & Steinberg, M. (1992). Comparison of pre- and post-combustion carbon removal. Energy Conversion and Management, 33(5–8), 747–754. https://doi.org/10.1016/0196-8904(92)90080-G