Application of Sn L3-XANES to study the oxidation state of alloying additions of tin (1-1.2 wt%) in <2 μm oxide layers formed on nuclear grade zirconium alloy has been demonstrated. Data obtained for metallic and corroded ZIRLO™ (1 wt% Sn) and Zircaloy-4 (1.2 wt% Sn) indicate tin has a similar chemical speciation in both metal alloys but this differs in the oxidised surface layers. By recording XANES at various incident angles to vary the photon penetration depth and amount of the oxide layer probed in the measurement, the authors found evidence that the oxidation of tin progresses with increasing oxide thickness.
Hulme, H., Baxter, F., Babu, R. P., Denecke, M. A., Gass, M., Steuwer, A., … Preuss, M. (2016). An X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) study of the Sn L3 edge in zirconium alloy oxide films formed during autoclave corrosion. Corrosion Science, 105, 202–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2016.01.018