Granulomatous-lymphocytic lung disease shortens survival in common variable immunodeficiency

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Abstract

Background Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by low levels of serum immunoglobulins and an inability to make specific antibodies. Objective We sought to determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and effect on survival of noninfectious pulmonary disease in patients with CVID. Methods A retrospective analysis of 69 patients with CVID was performed. Patients were divided into 3 groups on the basis of the type of pulmonary disease present: group 1 (n=29), no pulmonary disease; group 2 (n=23), chronic respiratory symptoms without diffuse radiographic abnormalities; and group 3 (n=18), chronic respiratory symptoms and diffuse radiographic abnormalities. Group 3 patients were divided into 2 subgroups on the basis of the histopathologic pattern seen on biopsy. Group 3A (n=13) included patients with granulomatous lung disease, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, follicular bronchiolitis, and lymphoid hyperplasia, a group of syndromes referred to as granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD). Group 3B (n=5) consisted of patients with all other types of interstitial lung disease (ILD). Results Fifty-eight percent of patients with CVID had noninfectious pulmonary complications. Group 3A (GLILD) patients had worse prognosis than the other groups, with a median survival of 13.7 versus 28.8 years (P<.001). Lymphoproliferative disease occurred in 31% of patients with GLILD. GLILD was associated with the presence of dyspnea (P<.05); splenomegaly (P<.05); restrictive pulmonary physiology; consolidation, ground-glass, and reticular radiographic abnormalities; and low CD3+ (P<.05) and CD8+ cell populations (P<.01). Conclusion ILD is common in patients with CVID. The presence of GLILD was associated with a worse prognosis and increased prevalence of lymphoproliferative disorders.

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Bates, C. A., Ellison, M. C., Lynch, D. A., Cool, C. D., Brown, K. K., & Routes, J. M. (2004). Granulomatous-lymphocytic lung disease shortens survival in common variable immunodeficiency. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 114(2), 415–421. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2004.05.057

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