We examined the influence of mitosis on the kinetics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integration in T cells. Single-round infection of cells arrested in G1b or allowed to synchronously proceed through division showed that mitosis delays virus integration until 18-24 h postinfection, whereas integration reaches maximum levels by 15 h in G1b-arrested cells. Subcellular fractionation of metaphase-arrested cells indicated that, while nuclear envelope disassembly facilitates docking of viral DNA to chromatin, chromosome condensation directly antagonizes and therefore delays integration. As a result of the balance between the two effects, virus integration efficiency is eventually up to threefold greater in dividing cells. At the single-cell level, using a green fluorescent protein-expressing reporter virus, we found that passage through mitosis leads to prominent asymmetric segregation of the viral genome in daughter cells without interfering with provirus expression. © 2004 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mannioui, A., Schiffer, C., Felix, N., Nelson, E., Brussel, A., Sonigo, P., … Canque, B. (2004). Cell cycle regulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integration in T cells: Antagonistic effects of nuclear envelope breakdown and chromatin condensation. Virology, 329(1), 77–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2004.08.022