Context: Patient-related barriers to cancer pain management are most commonly assessed with the Barriers Questionnaire II (BQII; 27 items). Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop a valid short form of the BQII—German version (BQII-G) to increase usability in clinical routines and reduce patient burden. Methods: The validation study comprised a stepwise approach. In the first step, the linguistic validated version of the BQII-G was psychometrically tested for internal consistency and factor structure (N = 207). The second step included an independent peer review in terms of expert ratings (four nurses and two patients) of each of the BQII-G items regarding (rather) include or (rather) not include, according to the content validity index. The third step comprised a consensus process to integrate the expert ratings into a short form of the BQII-G (BQII-G12). The fourth step included a preliminary psychometric exploration of the short version of BQII-G12. Results: Cronbach's α was 0.92 for the BQII-G. Steps 1–3 resulted in the BQII-G12 (12 items). The correlation showed that the BQII-G12 explains 84.3% (r = 0.92) of the variance of the BQII-G. Cronbach's alpha of the BQII-G12 was 0.833. Conclusion: The BQII-G12 showed excellent psychometric properties in the preliminary testing, providing a new option for practice and research. Patient-related barriers to cancer pain management are crucial for adequate pain treatment. The new valid and reliable short BQII-G12 supports clinical practice and research by substantially reducing patient burden and resources needed to measure these barriers.
Koller, A., & Jahn, P. (2018). Developing a Short Form of the German Barriers Questionnaire II: A Validation Study in Four Steps. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 55(2), 458–467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2017.09.019