To better understand the role of downstream Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling during acute cerebral ischemia, we performed cDNA microarrays, on brain RNA, and cytokine arrays, on serum, from wild type (WT), MyD88-/- and TRIF-mutant mice, at baseline and following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). The acute stress response pathway was among the top pathways identified by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of microarray data. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction to confirm the expression of four immediate early genes; EGR1, EGR2, ARC, Nurr77, in this pathway, and insulin degrading enzyme (IDE). Compared to WT, baseline immediate early gene expression was increased up to10-fold in MyD88-/- and TRIF-mutant mice. However, following pMCAO, immediate early gene expression remained unchanged, from this elevated baseline in these mice, but increased up to 12-fold in WT. Furthermore, expression of IDE, which also degrades β-amyloid, decreased significantly only in TRIF-mutant mice. Finally, sE-Selectin, sICAM, sVCAM-1, and MMP-9 levels were significantly decreased only in MyD88-/- compared with WT mice. We thus report a new role for downstream TLR signaling in immediate early gene expression during acute cerebral ischemia. We also show that the TRIF pathway regulates IDE expression; a major enzyme that clears β-amyloid from the brain.
Famakin, B. M., Mou, Y., Johnson, K., Spatz, M., & Hallenbeck, J. (2014). A new role for downstream Toll-like receptor signaling in mediating immediate early gene expression during focal cerebral ischemia. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 34(2), 258–267. https://doi.org/10.1038/jcbfm.2013.182