Background--Stress echocardiography (SE) predicts cardiac death, but an increasing share of cardiac patients eventually die of cancer. The aim of the study was to assess whether SE positivity predicts cancer death. Methods and Results--In a retrospective analysis of prospectively acquired single-center, observational data, we evaluated 4673 consecutive patients who underwent SE from 1983 to 2009. All patients were cancer-free at index SE and were followed up for a median of 131 months (interquartile range 134). We separately analyzed predetermined end points: cardiovascular, cancer, and noncardiovascular, noncancer death, with and without competing risk. SE was positive in 1757 and negative in 2916 patients; 869 cardiovascular, 418 cancer, and 625 noncardiovascular, noncancer deaths were registered. The 25-year mortality was higher in SEpositive than in SE-negative patients, considering cardiovascular (40% versus 31%; P < 0.001) and cancer mortality (26% versus 17%; P < 0.01). SE positivity was a strong predictor of cancer (cause-specific hazard ratio 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.73; P=0.05) and cardiovascular mortality (1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.35; P=0.02). Fine-Gray analysis to account for competing risk gave similar results. Cancer risk diverged after 15 years, whereas differences were already significant at 5 years for cardiovascular risk. Conclusions--SE results predict cardiovascular and cancer mortality. SE may act as a proxy of the shared risk factor milieu for cancer or cardiovascular death.
Carpeggiani, C., Landi, P., Michelassi, C., Andreassi, M. G., Sicari, R., & Picano, E. (2017). Stress echocardiography positivity predicts cancer death. Journal of the American Heart Association, 6(12). https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.117.007104