A2A adenosine receptors (A2ARs) are endogenous inhibitor of inflammation. Macrophages that are key effectors of kidney disease progression express A2ARs. We investigated the role of A2ARs in kidney inflammation in a macrophage-mediated anti–glomerular basement membrane reactive serum-induced immune nephritis in A2AR-deficient mice. Sub-threshold doses of glomerular basement membrane–reactive serum induced more severe and prolonged kidney damage with higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines and greater accumulation of inflammatory cells in A2AR−/− mice than wild-type (WT) mice. To investigate the role of macrophage A2AR in progressive kidney injury, glomerulonephritis was induced in CD11b-DTR transgenic mice. Macrophages were selectively depleted in the established phase of the disease and reconstituted with macrophages from WT or A2AR-deficient mice and then treated with an A2AR agonist. In mice receiving WT macrophages and treated with an A2AR agonist, the glomerular cellularity, crescent formation, sclerotic glomeruli, and tubulointerstitial injury were significantly reduced compared with the control group. In contrast, in mice reconstituted with A2AR-deficient macrophages and treated with an A2AR agonist, the kidney injury was more severe with increased deposition of collagen I, III, and IV. These findings suggest that disruption of the protective A2AR amplifies inflammation to accelerate glomerular damage and endogenous macrophage A2ARs are essential to protect from progressive kidney fibrosis.
Truong, L. D., Trostel, J., McMahan, R., Chen, J. F., & Garcia, G. E. (2016). Macrophage A2A Adenosine Receptors Are Essential to Protect from Progressive Kidney Injury. American Journal of Pathology, 186(10), 2601–2613. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2016.06.017