Background: Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are the main causal pathogens of gastrointestinal disease. However, there are limited reports about the prevalence of these organisms in captive Eurasian wild boars worldwide. Therefore, we examined the occurrence and identified the species/assemblages/genotypes of these pathogens in captive Eurasian wild boars, and estimated the zoonotic potential. Findings: Of 357 fecal samples collected from captive Eurasian wild boars in China, 155 (43.4%) were infected with Cryptosporidium, G. duodenalis and/or E. bieneusi. The infection rates significantly differed in different areas, but did not differ between wild boars kept indoors and outdoors. Three (0.8%), 11 (3.1%) and 147 (41.2%) fecal samples were positive for Cryptosporidium, G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi, respectively. Sequence analysis of SSU rRNA gene revealed that all of the Cryptosporidium strains belonged to C. scrofarum. Based on the sequence analysis of the β-giardia gene of G. duodenalis, assemblages E and A were characterized. Fourteen E. bieneusi genotypes comprising five novel (WildBoar 7-11) and eight known (EbpC, F, CHG19, CHC5, PigEBITS5, D, RWSH4, SC02) genotypes were identified by ITS sequencing. EbpC was the most frequent genotype, detected in 85 specimens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all 14 genotypes belonged to Group 1. Conclusions: This first report on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium, G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi in captive wild boars in China indicates that the presence of zoonotic species/assemblages/genotypes poses a threat to public health. The findings suggest that wild boars could be a significant source of human infection and water pollution.
Li, W., Deng, L., Wu, K., Huang, X., Song, Y., Su, H., … Peng, G. (2017). Presence of zoonotic Cryptosporidium scrofarum, Giardia duodenalis assemblage A and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in captive Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in China: Potential for zoonotic transmission. Parasites and Vectors, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1942-2