Isolation of measles virus in tissue culture by Enders and colleagues in the 1960s led to the development of the first measles vaccines. An inactivated vaccine provided only short-term protection and induced poor T cell responses and antibody that did not undergo affinity maturation. The response to this vaccine primed for atypical measles, a more severe form of measles, and was withdrawn. A live attenuated virus vaccine has been highly successful in protection from measles and in elimination of endemic measles virus transmission with the use of two doses. This vaccine is administered by injection between 9 and 15 months of age. Measles control would be facilitated if infants could be immunized at a younger age, if the vaccine were thermostable, and if delivery did not require a needle and syringe. To these ends, new vaccines are under development using macaques as an animal model and various combinations of the H, F, and N viral proteins. Promising studies have been reported using DNA vaccines, subunit vaccines, and virus-vectored vaccines. © 2009 Springer.
Griffin, D. E., & Pan, C. H. (2009). Measles: Old vaccines, new vaccines. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-70617-5_10