Insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion lead to disorders of glucose metabolism. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) could be endogenously produced in islet β cells, liver, adipose, skeletal muscles, and the hypothalamus, and regulates local and systemic glucose metabolism. It is reported that H2S suppresses insulin secretion, promotes or reduces the apoptosis of islet β cells. It plays important roles in the regulation of insulin sensitivity in insulin responsive tissues. H2S inhibits glucose uptake and glycogen storage, and promotes or inhibits gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial bioenergetics in the liver. In adipose tissue, several investigators indicated that H2S promoted glucose uptake in adipocytes, while other studies reported that H2S inhibits this process. H2S has also been shown to promote adipogenesis, inhibit lipolysis, and regulate adiponectin and MCP-1 secretion from adipocytes. In skeletal muscle, H2S increases glucose uptake and improves insulin sensitivity. It is also observed that H2S modulates circadian-clock genes in muscle. Hypothalamic CBS/H2S pathway reduces obesity and improves insulin sensitivity via the brain-adipose interaction. Most studies indicated plasma H2S levels decreased in diabetic patients. However, the mechanisms by which H2S regulates systemic glucose metabolism remain unclear. Whether H2S acts as a new promising target for diabetes mellitus treatment merits further studies.
Zhang, H., Huang, Y., Chen, S., Tang, C., Wang, G., Du, J., & Jin, H. (2020). Hydrogen sulfide regulates insulin secretion and insulin resistance in diabetes mellitus, a new promising target for diabetes mellitus treatment? A review. Journal of Advanced Research. Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2020.02.013