EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinomas routinely develop resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). To better characterize the relative frequencies of the resistance mechanisms, we analyzed 48 EGFR-mutated TKI-resistant specimens from 41 patients. Next generation sequencing of post-treatment specimens detected EGFR p.T790M in 31 (79%) of 39 patients, PIK3CA mutations in 10 (26%), EGFR p.S768_V769delinsIL in one, and KRAS p.G12C in one. Five PIK3CA mutations were outside of codons 542, 545, and 1047. Three of four pre-treatment specimens did not carry the PIK3CA mutation found in the post-treatment sample. Small cell carcinoma transformation was identified in four patients; none had p.T790M, including two where p.T790M was identified in the co-existing adenocarcinoma. In p.T790M-mutated specimens, the allele frequency was less than 5% in 24% of cases. p.T790M allele frequency was usually lower than that of the sensitizing mutation indicating that the resistance mutation was present either in a subset of cells or, if the sensitizing mutation was amplified, in a subset of the sensitizing alleles of a dominant clone. Eight patients had multiple resistance mutations, suggesting either multiple separate resistant clones or a single clone harboring multiple resistance mechanisms. PIK3CA mutations appear to be a more significant resistance mechanism than previously recognized.
Belchis, D. A., Tseng, L. H., Gniadek, T., Haley, L., Lokhandwala, P., Illei, P., … Lin, M. T. (2016). Heterogeneity of resistance mutations detectable by nextgeneration sequencing in TKI-treated lung adenocarcinoma. Oncotarget, 7(29), 45237–45248. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.9931