Canine streptococcal toxic shock syndrome associated with necrotizing fasciitis: An overview

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Abstract

Canine Toxic Shock Syndrome (CSTSS) is a serious often fatal disease syndrome seen in dogs caused as a result of an infection caused by gram positive cocci of the family Streptococci. The main bacterium involved in the etiology of Canine Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome is Streptoccoccus canis, which was discovered by Deveriese in 1986 and implicated as a cause of this disease syndrome in 1996 by Miller and Prescott. The clinical findings in this syndrome are very much similar to those seen in the infamous 'Toxic Shock 'caused by staphylococcal toxins in humans, especially females. Like in humans, the reason for emergence/reemergence of Canine Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome (CSTSS) is unclear and very little is known about its transmission and prevention. The disease is characterized by multi systemic organ failure and a shock like condition in seemingly healthy dog often following an injury. In absence of proper and prompt diagnosis and subsequent treatment by injectable antibiotics and aggressive shock therapy, dog often succumbs to the disease within a few hours. The dog may have some rigidity and muscle spasms or convulsions and a deep unproductive cough followed by haemorrhage from nasal and mouth along with melena. On necropsy, these dogs show severe edema of the gastrointestinal tract, congestion of multiple organs, severe pulmonary congestion and evidence of thrombo embolism. Necrotizing fasciitis is a localized form of streptococcal infection seen as extensive soft tissue sloughing and necrosis along the fascial planes. No vaccination is available so avoidance of the probable causal factors mainly participation in community events, estrus, change of environment and shipping is the only way to keep pet dogs away from this disease.

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Sharma, B., Srivastava, M. K., Srivastava, A., & Singh, R. (2012). Canine streptococcal toxic shock syndrome associated with necrotizing fasciitis: An overview. Veterinary World. https://doi.org/10.5455/vetworld.2012.311-319

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