The midterm results of coronary endarterectomy in patients with diffuse coronary artery disease

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Abstract

Background: Diffuse coronary artery disease is a challenge for both percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Coronary artery endarterectomy (CE) coupled with CABG is an alternative method to achieve complete revascularization. The mid- and long-term results of CE are largely questionable. The aim is to evaluate the early and mid-term graft patency of concomitant coronary artery endarterectomy and CABG. Methods: A total of 304 patients who had undergone concomitant CE and CABG for diffuse coronary artery disease were identified from our database. A total of 238 patients (1) with complete operative records, (2) with good graft flow during surgery, (3) who were discharged, (4) with a one-year/ three-year follow-up were included in our study. The follow-up information was obtained directly from our out-patient department and by telephone contact. The categorical and continuous values were analyzed by Chi Square test and student's test respectively. Results: CE was performed on 238 patients who represented a total of 269 target coronary vessels. The mean age of the patients was 67.8±6.8years old; male to female patient ratio was 170:68. The mean intensive care unit stay was 1.7±8days, and mean post-operative length of hospital stay was 11±3days. The average follow up time was 41.8±21.4months. At follow-up, the overall graft patency was 78.4% at one year and 69.8% at three years. The left coronary graft patency rate was significantly higher than the right coronary graft patency rate (87.4% vs 73.1% at one-year and 78.2% vs 64.8% at three years). There was no significant difference in graft patency rates between the on-pump CE+CABG vs off-pump CE+CABG groups at one year (80.0% vs 76.9%) and at three years (92.3% vs 91.7%). At the one-year follow up, 92.3% of grafts showed grade A patency in the on-pump group versus 91.7% in the off-pump group; 7.7% of grafts showed grade B patency in the on-pump group versus 8.3% in the off-pump group. At the three-year follow up, 80.6% of grafts showed grade A patency in the on-pump group versus 77.4% in the off-pump group; 19.4% of grafts showed grade B patency in the on-pump group versus 22.6% in the off -pump group. The Predictors of better graft patency are use of LIMA graft, CE on LAD, and intra-operative graft flow meter and PI. Conclusions: In patients with diffuse coronary disease, CE is a safe and feasible technique for a select group of patients with excellent mid-term survival rates and graft patency rates. CE produces better overall results when performed on the LAD, and grafted over with the LIMA. Similar outcomes are obtained with both on-pump and off-pump surgery. For a select group of patients, coronary endarterectomy (CE) offers an alternative choice of coronary artery reconstruction and complete coronary revascularization.

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Qiu, Z., Auchoybur Merveesh, L., Xu, Y., Jiang, Y., Wang, L., Xu, M., … Chen, X. (2018). The midterm results of coronary endarterectomy in patients with diffuse coronary artery disease. Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13019-018-0776-8

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