Hyperfractionated Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Doxorubicin, and Dexamethasone Chemotherapy in Mantle Cell Lymphoma Patients Is Associated with Higher Rates of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Mobilization Failure despite Plerixafor Rescue

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Abstract

Induction regimens for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) can be categorized into highly intensive regimens containing cytarabine and less intense regimens, such as rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) or rituximab with bendamustine (R-bendamustine). Prior publications have shown rituximab and hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (R-hyperCVAD) can be associated with stem cell mobilization failures. However, those studies did not include the use of plerixafor as rescue for stem cell mobilization failure. We examined our database of 181 consecutive MCL patients who received upfront therapy from 2005 to 2015 with either R-hyperCVAD or less intense chemotherapy (R-bendamustine and R-CHOP only) regimens to assess impact of frontline chemotherapy on collection of hematopoietic cell progenitors before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). In the preplerixafor era (before August 16, 2009), a significant difference in peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection failure between the R-hyperCVAD (12%) and other chemotherapy (11%) groups was not established. However, in the postplerixafor era, use of R-hyperCVAD chemotherapy was associated with significantly higher rates of hematopoietic progenitor cell collection failures (17%) compared with that observed in the other chemotherapy group (4%; P = .04). The rates of mobilization failure declined to 4% in the postplerixafor era from 11% in the preplerixafor era for patients receiving less intensive chemotherapy. Conversely, the rate of mobilization failure increased in the R-hyperCVAD group from 12% in the preplerixafor era to 17% in the postplerixafor era. Plerixafor does not overcome the negative impact of R-hyperCVAD on PBSC mobilization, and caution is warranted in using R-hyperCVAD in patients with newly diagnosed MCL who are candidates for ASCT.

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Salhotra, A., Shan, Y., Tsai, N. C., Sanchez, J. F., Aldoss, I., Ali, H., … Chen, R. (2017). Hyperfractionated Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine, Doxorubicin, and Dexamethasone Chemotherapy in Mantle Cell Lymphoma Patients Is Associated with Higher Rates of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Mobilization Failure despite Plerixafor Rescue. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, 23(8), 1264–1268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.04.011

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