Changes in psychological well-being among older Lithuanian city dwellers: Results from a cohort study

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Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate changes of psychological well-being (PWB) in older Lithuanian city dwellers during ten years of follow-up, and to establish factors associated with it. Method: 7,115 men and women of age 45-72 years participated in the initial survey in 2006-2008. In 2016 the follow-up survey was performed among all 6,210 participants who survived. 4,266 individuals responded to postal questionnaires. PWB was evaluated by using CASP-12 questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were evaluated by CES-D-10 scale. Quality of life, self-rated health, and social activity were evaluated.Socio-demographic, socio-economic factors were included into standard questionnaire. Results: PWB deteriorated in all age groups during 10-years follow-up. Poor quality of life, poor self-rated health, having depressive symptoms, and not being member of social organization are associated with lower PWB after 10 years in men and women. Employed-retired, retired, and not socially active women have higher possibility to have lower PWB over 10 years. Conclusions: PWB in older Lithuanian city dwellers deteriorates as many other socio-economic and psychosocial indicators during ten-year follow-up. Mostly psychosocial factors, but not the socio-demographic, and socio-economic ones predict PWB over 10 years. It is crucial to understand and promote predictors of PWB in older age.




Sapranaviciute-Zabazlajeva, L., Luksiene, D., Virviciute, D., Kranciukaite-Butylkiniene, D., Bobak, M., & Tamosiunas, A. (2018). Changes in psychological well-being among older Lithuanian city dwellers: Results from a cohort study. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 18(3), 218–226.

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