Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important global food crop that contains phytochemicals with demonstrated effects on human health. Understanding sources of chemical variation of potato tuber can inform breeding for improved health attributes of the cooked food. Here, a comprehensive metabolomics (UPLC- and GC-MS) and ionomics (ICP-MS) analysis of raw and cooked potato tuber was performed on 60 unique potato genotypes that span 5 market classes including russet, red, yellow, chip, and specialty potatoes. The analyses detected 2,656 compounds that included known bioactives (43 compounds), nutrients (42), lipids (76), and 23 metals. Most nutrients and bioactives were partially degraded during cooking (44 out of 85; 52%), however genotypes with high quantities of bioactives remained highest in the cooked tuber. Chemical variation was influenced by genotype and market class. Specifically, ~53% of all detected compounds from cooked potato varied among market class and 40% varied by genotype. The most notable metabolite profiles were observed in yellow-flesh potato which had higher levels of carotenoids and specialty potatoes which had the higher levels of chlorogenic acid as compared to the other market classes. Variation in several molecules with known association to health was observed among market classes and included vitamins (e.g., pyridoxal, ~2-fold variation), bioactives (e.g., chlorogenic acid, ~40-fold variation), medicinals (e.g., kukoamines, ~6-fold variation), and minerals (e.g., calcium, iron, molybdenum, ~2-fold variation). Furthermore, more metabolite variation was observed within market class than among market class (e.g., α-tocopherol, ~1-fold variation among market class vs. ~3-fold variation within market class). Taken together, the analysis characterized significant metabolite and mineral variation in raw and cooked potato tuber, and support the potential to breed new cultivars for improved health traits.
Chaparro, J. M., Holm, D. G., Broeckling, C. D., Prenni, J. E., & Heuberger, A. L. (2018). Metabolomics and Ionomics of Potato Tuber Reveals an Influence of Cultivar and Market Class on Human Nutrients and Bioactive Compounds. Frontiers in Nutrition, 5. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2018.00036