Significant embrittlement in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels can be caused by the formation of nanometer-scale Mn–Ni–Si precipitates (MNSPs) and annealing is a promising technique for reducing embrittlement. To achieve better understanding of the evolution of these precipitates at the atomic scale, a kinetic lattice Monte Carlo (KLMC) model, parameterized using CALPHAD and recent atom probe tomography (APT) data, is used to simulate post-irradiation annealing of MNSPs. The model predicts MNSP volume fractions, number densities and sizes that agree well with the experimental observations. The model also predicts that the initial structure of the precipitates may be B2 bcc phases with one sublattice occupied by Ni and the other sublattice occupied by Mn and Si, as well as shows a modest temperature dependence of the MNSP composition. The results show that the simple approach can be used to model MNSP evolution and supports that these precipitates are stable thermodynamic phases.
Shu, S., Wells, P. B., Odette, G. R., & Morgan, D. (2019). A kinetic lattice Monte Carlo study of post-irradiation annealing of model reactor pressure vessel steels. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 524, 312–322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2019.07.018