Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) are an emerging cause of morbidity and mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Three-hundred forty-eight consecutive patients transplanted at our hospital from July 2012 to January 2016 were screened for a pretransplant MDR-GNB colonization and evaluated for clinical outcomes. A pretransplant MDR-GNB colonization was found in 16.9% of allo-HSCT and in 9.6% of auto-HSCT recipients. Both in auto- and in allo-HSCT, carriers of a MDR-GNB showed no significant differences in overall survival (OS), transplant-related mortality (TRM), or infection-related mortality (IRM) compared with noncarriers. OS at 2 years for carriers compared with noncarriers was 85% versus 81% (P =.262) in auto-HSCT and 50% versus 43% (P =.091) in allo-HSCT. TRM at 2 years was 14% versus 5% (P =.405) in auto-HSCT and 31% versus 25% (P =.301) in allo-HSCT. IRM at 2 years was 14% versus 2% (P =.142) in auto-HSCT and 23% versus 14% (P =.304) in allo-HSCT. In multivariate analysis, only grade III to IV acute graft-versus-host disease was an independent factor for reduced OS (P <.001) and increased TRM (P <.001) and IRM (P <.001). During the first year after transplant, we collected 73 GNB bloodstream infectious (BSI) episodes in 54 patients, 42.4% of which sustained by a MDR-GNB. Rectal swabs positivity associated with the pathogen causing subsequent MDR-GNB BSI episodes in 13 of 31 (41.9%). Overall, OS at 4 months from MDR-GNB BSI episode onset was of 67.9%, with a 14-day attributed mortality of 12.9%, not being significantly different between carriers and noncarriers (P =.207). We conclude that in this extended single-center experience, a pretransplant MDR-GNB colonization did not significantly influence OS, TRM, and IRM both in auto- and allo-HSCT settings and that MDR-GNB attributed mortality can be controlled in carriers when an early pre-emptive antimicrobial therapy is started in case of neutropenic fever.
Forcina, A., Lorentino, F., Marasco, V., Oltolini, C., Marcatti, M., Greco, R., … Ciceri, F. (2018). Clinical Impact of Pretransplant Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Colonization in Autologous and Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, 24(7), 1476–1482. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.02.021