Manganese dioxide has for many years found widespread use as a cathode material in aqueous Leclanché, zinc chloride and alkaline cells and, more recently, in nonaqueous lithium cells. However, despite the large number of polymorphic structures that exist in the manganese dioxide family, the battery industry has used γ-MnO2 exclusively as the positive electrode in these cells. With the advent of rechargeable lithium battery technology research efforts have demonstrated that other MnO2 structures, when processed in the correct way, provide attractive electrochemical properties for lithium cells. In this paper, some recent advances that have been made in MnO2 materials technology are discussed, for example, in the development of α-MnO2, layered-MnO2, spinel-related Li2O.αMnO2 (γ ≥ 2.5) and ramsdellite-MnO2 materials. An attempt has been made to clarify issues relating to the structural features of 'CDMO'-type materials that are prepared by the reaction of γ-MnO2 with LiNO3 (or LiOH) at 300-400 °C. © 1993.
Thackeray, M. M., Rossouw, M. H., de Kock, A., de la Harpe, A. P., Gummow, R. J., Pearce, K., & Liles, D. C. (1993). The versatility of MnO2 for lithium battery applications. Journal of Power Sources, 43(1–3), 289–300. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-7753(93)80126-A