Objective: We assessed the 18-month effectiveness of short-course (sc) antiretroviral peripartum regimens combined with alternatives to prolonged breastfeeding to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Methodology: HIV-1 infected pregnant women received from ≥32-36 weeks of gestation scZidovudine (ZDV)+/ - Lamivudine (3TC)+single-dose Nevirapine (sdNVP) at delivery within the ANRS 1201/1202 DITRAME-Plus cohort (2001-2003). Neonates received a sdNVP+7-day ZDV prophylaxis. Two infant-feeding interventions were systematically offered free of charge: formula-feeding or exclusive shortened breastfeeding with early cessation from four months. The reference group was the ANRS 049a DITRAME cohort (1994-2000) exposed to scZDV from 36 weeks, then to prolonged breastfeeding. Pediatric HIV infection was defined by a positive plasma HIV-1 RNA at any age, or if aged ≥ 18 months, a positive HIV-1 serology. Turnbull estimates of cumulative transmission risks (CTR) and effectiveness (HIV-free survival) were compared by exposure group using a Cox model. Findings: Among 926 live-born children enrolled, 107 (11.6%) were HIV-infected at 18 months. CTRs were 22.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16-30%) in the 238 ZDV long-term breastfed reference group, 15.9% (Cl: 10-27%) in the 169 ZDV+sdNVP shortened breastfed group; 9.4% (Cl:6-14%) in the 195 ZDV+sdNVP formula-fed group; 6.8% (Cl:4-11%) in the 198 ZDV+3TC+sdNVP shortened breastfed group, and 5.6% (Cl:2-10%) in the 126 ZDV+3TC+sdNVP formula-fed group. Each combination had a significantly higher effectiveness than the ZDV long-term breastfed group except for ZDV+sdNVP shortened breastfed children, ranging from 51% (Cl:20-70%) for ZDV+sdNVP formula fed children to 63% (Cl:40-80%) for ZDV+3TC+NVPsd shortened breastfed children, after adjustment for maternal eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART), home delivery and low birth-weight. Substantial MTCT risk reductions are reachable in Africa, even in short-term breastfed children. The two sc antiretroviral combinations associated to any of the two infant feeding interventions, formula-feeding and shortened breastfeeding, reduce significantly MTCT with long-term benefit until age 18 months and without increasing mortality. © 2008 Leroy et al.
Leroy, V., Ekouevi, D. K., Becquet, R., Viho, I., Dequae-Merchadou, L., Tonwe-Gold, B., … Salamon, R. (2008). 18-Month effectiveness of short-course antiretroviral regimens combined with alternatives to breastfeeding to prevent HIV mother-to-child transmission. PLoS ONE, 3(2). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001645