The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between testicular cancer and cigarette smoking. Data were collected between 1995 and 1996 in Ontario, Canada, as part of the Enhanced Cancer Surveillance Study. Pack-years and years of smoking were examined among all subjects (212 cases and 252 controls) and former and current smokers. Years since quitting and age at smoking initiation were examined among former and current smokers only. Independent of smoking status, significant associations were noted among those who smoked between 12 and 24 pack-years [odds ratio (OR) = 1.96 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-3.69), relative to nonsmokers] or greater [>24 pack-years, OR = 2.31 (95% CI: 1.12-4.77), relative to nonsmokers], and among those who smoked >21 years [OR = 3.18 (95% CI: 1.32-7.64), relative to nonsmokers]. Quitting smoking was not found to result in a reduction of risk. No association was observed for smoking at adolescence relative to a later period. Results from the study suggest that cigarette smoking exerts an adverse influence on testicular cancer risk that is not mitigated by smoking cessation and not altered by age at initiation.
Srivastava, A., & Kreiger, N. (2004). Cigarette Smoking and Testicular Cancer. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, 13(1), 49–54. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-03-0133