Deception is considered a psychological process by which one individual deliberately attempts to convince another person to accept as true what the liar knows to be false. This paper presents the use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy for deception detection. This technique measures hemodynamic variations in the cortical regions induced by neural activations. The experimental setup involved a mock theft paradigm with ten subjects, where the subjects responded to a set of questions, with each of their answers belonging to one of three categories: Induced Lies, Induced Truths, and Non-Induced responses. The relative changes of the hemodynamic activity in the subject's prefrontal cortex were recorded during the experiment. From this data, the changes in blood volume were derived and represented as false color topograms. Finally, a human evaluator used these topograms as a guide to classify each answer into one of the three categories. His performance was compared with that of a support vector machine (SVM) classifier in terms of accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. The human evaluator achieved an accuracy of 84.33 % in a tri-class problem and 92 % in a bi-class problem (induced vs. non-induced responses). In comparison, the SVM classifier correctly classified 95.63 % of the answers in a tri-class problem using cross-validation for the selection of the best features. These results suggest a tradeoffbetween accuracy and computational burden. In other words, it is possible for an interviewer to classify each response by only looking at the topogram of the hemodynamic activity, but at the cost of reduced prediction accuracy.
Vega, R., Hernandez-Reynoso, A. G., Linn, E. K., Fuentes-Aguilar, R. Q., Sanchez-Ante, G., Santos-Garcia, A., & Garcia-Gonzalez, A. (2016). Hemodynamic pattern recognition during deception process using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering, 36(1), 22–31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40846-016-0103-6