Background Stroke is a widely recognized complication after aortic valve replacement (AVR), especially among elderly patients. The literature contains substantial variability in reports of the actual incidence of stroke after AVR among high-risk patients. Our objective was to define risk of stroke in patients undergoing surgical AVR, using a large national database. Methods We used the 2002 to 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database for this analysis. All patients undergoing isolated AVR, or AVR with coronary artery bypass grafting (AVR + CABG), were identified using standard International Classification of Diseases codes. In-hospital mortality and any adverse neurologic event were the primary outcomes of the study. Results The incidence of in-hospital mortality was 3.0% and 5.1%, respectively, among patients undergoing isolated AVR and AVR + CABG; it was significantly lower in high-volume centers. The incidence of any adverse neurologic event was 2.0% and 2.9%, respectively, among patients undergoing isolated AVR, and AVR + CABG. We demonstrated a progressive increase in the risk of in-hospital mortality and adverse neurologic events with increasing age. Neurologic events increased with age, from 1.3% for patients aged <70 years, to 3.2% for those aged >85 years, for isolated AVR; and from 2.3% to 3.6% for AVR + CABG. The incidence of in-hospital mortality was as high as 5.7% and 7.4%, respectively, among patients aged >85 years undergoing isolated AVR, and AVR + CABG. Similarly, the incidence of any adverse neurologic event was 3.2% and 3.6%, respectively, among patients aged >85 years undergoing isolated AVR, and AVR + CABG. In addition, the risk of adverse neurologic events was significantly higher in the high-risk surgical cohort, compared with the low-risk surgical cohort (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]; isolated AVR: 2.38 [1.99-2.86]; AVR + CABG: 1.88 [1.57-2.24]). Conclusions The incidence of in-hospital mortality and adverse neurologic events was significantly higher among patients with advanced age and elevated surgical risk.
Agarwal, S., Garg, A., Parashar, A., Svensson, L. G., Tuzcu, E. M., Navia, J. L., … Kapadia, S. R. (2015). In-hospital mortality and stroke after surgical aortic valve replacement: A nationwide perspective. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 150(3), 571-578.e8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2015.05.068