In-hospital mortality and stroke after surgical aortic valve replacement: A nationwide perspective

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Abstract

Background Stroke is a widely recognized complication after aortic valve replacement (AVR), especially among elderly patients. The literature contains substantial variability in reports of the actual incidence of stroke after AVR among high-risk patients. Our objective was to define risk of stroke in patients undergoing surgical AVR, using a large national database. Methods We used the 2002 to 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database for this analysis. All patients undergoing isolated AVR, or AVR with coronary artery bypass grafting (AVR + CABG), were identified using standard International Classification of Diseases codes. In-hospital mortality and any adverse neurologic event were the primary outcomes of the study. Results The incidence of in-hospital mortality was 3.0% and 5.1%, respectively, among patients undergoing isolated AVR and AVR + CABG; it was significantly lower in high-volume centers. The incidence of any adverse neurologic event was 2.0% and 2.9%, respectively, among patients undergoing isolated AVR, and AVR + CABG. We demonstrated a progressive increase in the risk of in-hospital mortality and adverse neurologic events with increasing age. Neurologic events increased with age, from 1.3% for patients aged <70 years, to 3.2% for those aged >85 years, for isolated AVR; and from 2.3% to 3.6% for AVR + CABG. The incidence of in-hospital mortality was as high as 5.7% and 7.4%, respectively, among patients aged >85 years undergoing isolated AVR, and AVR + CABG. Similarly, the incidence of any adverse neurologic event was 3.2% and 3.6%, respectively, among patients aged >85 years undergoing isolated AVR, and AVR + CABG. In addition, the risk of adverse neurologic events was significantly higher in the high-risk surgical cohort, compared with the low-risk surgical cohort (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]; isolated AVR: 2.38 [1.99-2.86]; AVR + CABG: 1.88 [1.57-2.24]). Conclusions The incidence of in-hospital mortality and adverse neurologic events was significantly higher among patients with advanced age and elevated surgical risk.

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Agarwal, S., Garg, A., Parashar, A., Svensson, L. G., Tuzcu, E. M., Navia, J. L., … Kapadia, S. R. (2015). In-hospital mortality and stroke after surgical aortic valve replacement: A nationwide perspective. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 150(3), 571-578.e8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2015.05.068

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