This investigation evaluated the epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in different areas of Saudi Arabia. A total of 72 168 cases of scorpion stings recorded in Ministry of Health Medical Centers in 11 selected areas of Saudi Arabia were analysed based on area, age, sex, time of sting, sting site, treatment outcome, time of year, and scorpion species. Stings occurred throughout the year; the highest frequency was in June (15.08%), the lowest in February (2.52%). Most patients were male (61.8%); the majority of which were more than 15 years old (65.4%). Nocturnal envenomation (47.74%) was more common than diurnal (43.91%); most stings were in exposed limbs (90.95%), mainly in the lower limbs (63%). Most envenomings were mild (74.48%) and all evolved to cure, except for one death. Envenomation was characterized by local pain, erythema, headache, vomiting, and anxiety. This study found that the Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg 1828), Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier 1807), and Apistobuthus pterygocercus (Finnegan 1807) were responsible for most of the stings, indicating their medical importance in Saudi Arabia. The study shows low threat to life despite the high number of stings; this is a result of the availability of medical facilities and the multi-center antivenom use in different areas of Saudi Arabia.
Al-Sadoon, M. K., & Jarrar, B. M. (2003). Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia between 1993 and 1997. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases, 9(1), 54–64. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1678-91992003000100003