After radical cystectomy (RC), patients are at risk for complications including infections. The expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) after surgery may contribute to the lower resistance to infection. Immune response and postoperative complications were compared in men consuming either specialized immunonutrition (SIM; n = 14) or an oral nutrition supplement (ONS; n = 15) before and after RC. MDSC count (Lin- CD11b+ CD33+) was significantly different between the groups over time (p = 0.005) and significantly lower in SIM 2 d after RC (p < 0.001). MDSC count expansion from surgery to 2 d after RC showed a weak association with an increase in infection rate 90 d after surgery (p = 0.061). Neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio was significantly lower in SIM compared with ONS 3 h after the first incision (p = 0.039). Participants receiving SIM had a 33% reduction in postoperative complication rate (95% confidence interval [CI], 1-64; p = 0.060) and a 39% reduction in infection rate (95% CI, 8-70; p = 0.027) during late-phase recovery. The small sample size limits the study findings. Patient summary Results show that the immune response to surgery and late infection rates differ between radical cystectomy patients receiving specialized immunonutrition versus oral nutrition supplement in the perioperative period. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01868087.
Hamilton-Reeves, J. M., Bechtel, M. D., Hand, L. K., Schleper, A., Yankee, T. M., Chalise, P., … Holzbeierlein, J. M. (2016). Effects of Immunonutrition for Cystectomy on Immune Response and Infection Rates: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. European Urology, 69(3), 389–392. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2015.11.019