Recent progresses in high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) have enabled us to directly visualize dynamic processes of various proteins in liquid conditions. One of the key factors leading to successful HS-AFM observations is the selection of an appropriate substrate depending on molecules to be observed. For the HS-AFM imaging, a target molecule must be absorbed on a substrate by controlling its orientation without impairing the dynamics or physiological function of the molecule. In this chapter, we describe protocols for preparation of substrates that have been used for HS-AFM and then introduce observation examples on dynamic processes of biological molecules.
Uchihashi, T., Watanabe, H., & Kodera, N. (2018). Optimum substrates for imaging biological molecules with high-speed atomic force microscopy. In Methods in Molecular Biology (Vol. 1814, pp. 159–179). Humana Press Inc. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-8591-3_10