When the gene for the mosquitocidal protein CryIVA was expressed in two strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cured of their resident δ-endotoxin genes, the protein accumulated as large inclusions. The inclusions produced in the Bt subsp. kurstaki recipient strain were twice as soluble at alkaline pH as the inclusions produced in Bt subsp. israelensis. Solubilized protoxins were activated by treatment with mosquito gut extracts or trypsin for varying lengths of time and tested for in vitro cytotoxicity on cell lines of three genera of mosquito. CryIVA treated with any of the mosquito gut extracts for 6 h showed significant toxicity against Anopheles gambiae cells and slight activity on Culex quinquefasciatus cells. For CryIVB, the only significant cytotoxicity observed was against Aedes aegypti cells after treatment with Aedes gut extract. In in vivo bioassays, both CryIVA, purified from either of the Bt recipient strains, and CryIVB inclusions were similarly toxic to A. aegypti and A. gambiae larvae but CryIVA was 25-fold more toxic to C. quinquefasciatus. Synergism in vivo between the two toxins was revealed when results from assaying single toxins and mixtures were compared. Mixtures of CryIVA and CryIVB proved to be 5-fold more toxic to Culex than either toxin used singly and showed a reduced but similar synergism when tested against Aedes and Anopheles larvae. The synergism was not duplicated in vitro using cell lines from these three insects. © 1992.
Angsuthanasombat, C., Crickmore, N., & Ellar, D. J. (1992). Comparison of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis CryIVA and CryIVB cloned toxins reveals synergism in vivo. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 94(1–2), 63–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1097(92)90584-B