Background: The utility of carbapenems, which are considered 'last-line' agents, is being diminished by the growing incidence of various resistance mechanisms in bacteria. We aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacter cloacae recovered from a 76-year-old patient who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting and repair of the mitral and tricuspid valves. Interestingly, the patient had no prior history of hospital admission abroad. Methods: The Carba-NP test II and synergy testing were performed to confirm carbapenemase activity. PCR was used to detect carbapenemase-encoding genes. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis was performed to identify OXA-48 variants. Moreover, we performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. cloacae. Results: We detected no significant increase in zone diameter around disks with inhibitors. However, the Carba-NP test II revealed carbapenemase activity in all isolates. All isolates showed the presence of the exact OXA-48 carbapenemase variant. Furthermore, MLST analysis revealed that the MDR E. cloacae isolates belonged to ST89. Conclusions: We report a case of infection caused by a unique carbapenem-resistant E. cloacae ST89 producing OXA-48 carbapenemase. Interestingly, these pathogens developed resistance to other 'last-resort' agents, namely colistin and tigecycline. There is a crucial need for surveillance programs aimed at screening for carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria, especially in patients transferred from high-incidence areas. © 2014 The Authors.
Majewski, P., Wieczorek, P., Sacha, P. T., Frank, M., Juszczyk, G., Ojdana, D., … Tryniszewska, E. A. (2014). Emergence of OXA-48 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter cloacae ST89 infection in Poland. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 25, 107–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2014.02.024