CXCR4-a prognostic and clinicopathological biomarker for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: A meta-analysis

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Abstract

Adenocarcinomas of the pancreatic duct (PDAC) are characteristically aggressive tumors that are extremely challenging to treat as curative surgical resection, the definitive treatment, is seldom possible. Regretably, most patients are diagnosed with metastatic disease at the time of initial presentation. In addition, current chemotherapeutic concepts that are used for advanced disease stages show frustrating results. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify novel therapeutic molecular targets that are associated with PDAC disease. Recently, the chemokine receptor CXCR4 has been demonstrated to be highly expressed in metastatic PDAC. However, the results of the published data on CXCR4 and its association with clinicopathological variables and prognosis in PDAC seem to be heterogeneous. Consequently, to clarify the relevance of CXCR4 as a biomarker in PDAC we performed a comprehensive literature search by using PubMed and Web of Science databases to identify articles that focused on the expression of CXCR4 in PDAC by using immunohistochemistry. Subsequently, data from nine relevant studies, encompassing 1183 patients were extracted, qualitatively assessed, and entered into a meta-analysis. By using a random effects model, the pooled hazard ratio of the seven studies that reported on patients overall survival revealed a correlation between expression of CXCR4 and poor prognosis (HR 1.49; 95% CI: 1.04-2.14; P = 0.03; I<sup>2</sup> = 74%). Although heterogeneity became evident, subgroup analyses confirmed the prognostic value of CXCR4 in PDAC, especially in highquality studies that performed multivariate analysis. In addition, meta-analysis revealed a strong association of CXCR4 expression with the UICC stage (OR: 3.40; 95% CI: 1.67- 6.92; P = 0.0007; I<inf>2</inf> = 0%) and metastatic disease (N-status: OR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.56-4.15; P = 0.0002; I<inf>2</inf> = 26%; recurrence to the liver: OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.48-5.29; P = 0.001; I<inf>2</inf> = 0%). Taken together, our meta-analysis suggests that CXCR4 represents a useful prognostic biomarker in PDAC and might therefore be evaluated as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of metastatic cancer disease of the pancreas. Copyright:

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Krieg, A., Riemer, J. C., Telan, L. A., Gabbert, H. E., & Knoefel, W. T. (2015). CXCR4-a prognostic and clinicopathological biomarker for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: A meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 10(6). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130192

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