Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is responsible for the majority of deaths in the developed world. Particularly, in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the imbalance of calcium and phosphate may lead to the acceleration of both vascular and valve inflammation and calcification. One in two patients with CKD are reported as dying from cardiovascular causes due to the resulting acceleration in the development of atherosclerosis plaques. In addition, CKD patients on hemodialysis are prone to aortic valve calcification and often need valve replacement before kidney transplantation. The lysosomal proteases, cathepsins, are composed of 11 cysteine members (cathepsin B, C, F, H, K, L, O, S, V, W, and Z), as well as serine proteases cathepsin A and G, which cleave peptide bonds with serine as the amino acid, and aspartyl proteases D and E, which use an activated water molecule bound to aspartate to break peptide substrate. Cysteine proteases, also known as thiol proteases, degrade protein via the deprotonation of a thiol and have been found to play a significant role in autoimmune disease, atherosclerosis, aortic valve calcification, cardiac repair, and cardiomyopathy, operating within extracellular spaces. This review sought to evaluate recent findings in this field, highlighting how among cathepsins, the inhibition of cathepsin S in particular, could play a significant role in diminishing the effects of CVD, especially for patients with CKD.
Sena, B. F., Figueiredo, J. L., & Aikawa, E. (2018, January 5). Cathepsin S As an Inhibitor of Cardiovascular Inflammation and Calcification in Chronic Kidney Disease. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. Frontiers Media S.A. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2017.00088