IL-9-producing Th9 cell is a novel Th cell subset involved in type II allergic inflammations such as asthma. Th9 cells can be induced from naïve Th cells in the presence of IL-4 and TGF-β. It is also well established that downstream signals of IL-4 and TGF-β, including STAT6, IRF4, Smad, and PU.1, directly mediate IL-9 production in Th9 cells. In this chapter we describe the methods of flow cytometry, qPCR and western blot analysis to determine the expression or activation of these transcription factors downstream of IL-4 and TGF-β.
Sugimoto, A., Kawakami, R., & Mikami, N. (2017). Transcription factors downstream of IL-4 and TGF-β signals: Analysis by quantitative PCR, Western blot, and flow cytometry. In Methods in Molecular Biology (Vol. 1585, pp. 141–153). Humana Press Inc. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-6877-0_11