Lanthanum/manganese doped barium titanate (BT) based PTCR functional heater elements/structures were fabricated with desirable electrical properties for the first time using Additive Manufacturing (AM). 3D printed components of varying size and shape and prototype honeycomb lattices with high density were achieved through AM. Aqueous, less organic containing (2.5 wt% additives versus 10–30 wt% added typically), eco-friendly ink formulations were developed with suitable rheological properties for 3D printing. For BT prints, the sintered densities of the 3D ceramic parts were found to be >99% TD, highest reported value so far. The microstructure, electrical properties and heating characteristics of the printed PTCR components were studied in detail and their thermal stability evaluated using infrared imaging and benchmarked against commercial PTCR heating element. The heating behaviour of the solid and porous 3D printed components was demonstrated to be similar, paving the way for light weight (˜47% reduction in weight) heaters suitable for automotive/aerospace applications and less materials wastage during device fabrication.
Rowlands, W., & Vaidhyanathan, B. (2019). Additive manufacturing of barium titanate based ceramic heaters with positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PTCR). Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 39(12), 3475–3483. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2019.03.024