Stealth Amphotericin B nanoparticles for oral drug delivery: In vitro optimization

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Abstract

Purpose: Amphotericin B (AmB) is an effective anti-fungal and anti-leishmanial agent. However, AmB has low oral bioavailability (0.3%) and adverse effects (e.g., nephrotoxicity). The objectives of this study were to improve the oral bioavailability by entrapping AmB in pegylated (PEG) poly lactide co glycolide copolymer (PLGA-PEG) nanoparticles (NPs). The feasibility of different surfactants and stabilizers on the mean particle size (MPS) and entrapment efficiency were also investigated. Materials and methods: NPs of AmB were prepared by a modified emulsification diffusion method employing a vitamin E derivative as a stabilizer. Physicochemical properties and particle size characterization were evaluated using Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, in vitro dissolution profiles were performed for all formulated AmB NPs. Results: MPS of the prepared spherical particles of AmB ranged from 26.4. ±. 2.9 to 1068. ±. 489.8. nm. An increased stirring rate favored AmB NPs with a smaller MPS. There was a significant reduction in MPS, drug content and drug release, when AmB NPs were prepared using the diblock polymer PLGA-PEG with 15% PEG. Addition of three emulsifying agents poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), Vitamin E (TPGS) and pluronic F-68 to AmB formulations led to a significant reduction in particle size and increase in drug entrapment efficiency (DEE) compared to addition of PVP alone. FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated a successful loading of AmB to pegylated PLGA-PEG copolymers. PLGA-PEG copolymer entrapment efficiency of AmB was increased up to 56.7%, with 92.7% drug yield. After a slow initial release, between 20% and 54% of AmB was released in vitro within 24. h phosphate buffer containing 2% sodium deoxycholate and were best fit Korsmeyer-Peppas model. In conclusion, PLGA-PEG diblock copolymer with 15% PEG produced a significant reduction (>70%) in MPS with highest drug content. The percentage of PEG in the copolymer and the surfactant/stabilizer used had a direct effect on AmB release in vitro, entrapment efficiency and MPS. These developed formulations are feasible, effective and improved alternatives to other carriers for oral delivery of AmB.

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AL-Quadeib, B. T., Radwan, M. A., Siller, L., Horrocks, B., & Wright, M. C. (2015). Stealth Amphotericin B nanoparticles for oral drug delivery: In vitro optimization. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 23(3), 290–302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2014.11.004

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