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Perspectives on alternative water sources in Europe and the Middle East

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Fresh water is no longer taken for granted as a plentiful and always available resource. In addition to drought impacts, the overexploitation of water resources, especially for agriculture, increases the risk of water deficit and, consequently, environmental hazards. The problem of water deficit is further exacerbated by global warming, which is likely to make precipitation patterns more variable, changing the patterns of water availability on a quantitative, temporal, and/or regional basis. Alternative approaches to enhancing resource availability include water recycling, rainwater harvesting, and desalination. This paper explores the drivers for alternative resource development and discusses technology and scheme design choices. Its major emphasis, however, is on the implementation of schemes in terms of their social and economic considerations, as well as their role in Integrated Water Resources Management strategies. © 2007 Springer.




Jeffrey, P. (2007). Perspectives on alternative water sources in Europe and the Middle East. NATO Security through Science Series C: Environmental Security.

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