In the present study, longitudinal changes in bone mineral density, bone turnover, and bone hormonal metabolism were evaluated in newly diagnosed children with cancer. Lumbar spine (L2-L4) and femoral neck bone mineral densities (grams per cm2) were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 28 children (age, 2.9-16.0 yr; median, 8.0 yr; 10 acute lymphoblastic leukemias, 18 solid tumors) at diagnosis and after a 1-yr follow-up. Apparent volumetric density (grams per cm3) was calculated to minimize the effect of bone size on BMD. Serum levels of osteocalcin (OC), type I collagen carboxyl-terminal propeptide (PICP), and type I collagen carboxyl-terminal telopeptide were measured serially during the study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and IGF-binding protein-3 were analyzed at diagnosis and at 1-yr follow-up. A significant decrease in femoral bone mineral density and apparent volumetric density was observed during the year after diagnosis [(mean (SD), -10.1% (8.8%) and -11.3% (8.1%) respectively; P < 0.01], whereas age- and sex-matched controls showed annual increments of +5.4% (7.7%; P < 0.01) and +0.7% (5.7%; P = NS) respectively. The markers of bone formation (PICP and OC) were significantly decreased at diagnosis. By the end of the follow-up, PICP and OC were normalized, whereas the marker of bone resorption (type I collagen carboxyl-terminal telopeptide) was significantly increased. Reduced levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and IGF-binding protein-3 were observed during the study. To conclude, increased bone resorption and impaired development of femoral bone density were observed in children with cancer during chemotherapy. Deficient accumulation of bone mass may lead to impaired development of peak bone mass and predispose children with cancer to increased risk of osteoporosis and diminished skeletal resistance to fractures later in life.
Arikoski, P., Komulainen, J., Riikonen, P., Voutilainen, R., Knip, M., & Kröger, H. (1999). Alterations in bone turnover and impaired development of bone mineral density in newly diagnosed children with cancer: A 1-year prospective study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 84(9), 3174–3181. https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem.84.9.5968