The endocrine system coordinates and regulates various physiological functions and has a profound influence on the aging process. Studies from multiple model organisms indicate that hormones that regulate growth and metabolism can also play central roles in aging and the incidence of age-related diseases. The growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling pathways represent perhaps the most potent and best characterized pro-aging axis. In mammals, GH and IGF-1 activity also contributes to age-related diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Growth factors can affect disease progress, in part, by regulating cellular resistance to stress and by the inhibiting stem cell-dependent regeneration. Here, we discuss the GH-IGF-1 axis, its connections with the recently identified mitochondrial-derived endocrine factor, and their effect on aging and age-related diseases.
Lee, C. D., & Longo, V. D. (2018). Growth Hormones and Aging (pp. 691–702). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44675-2_27