Background: Respiratory viruses play a major role in morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. In Kenya, information on the prevalence of viruses associated with childhood acute respiratory infection (ARI) is patchy, with little information on the spatial-temporal distribution of these viruses. Objective: To determine the prevalence of RSV and Adenovirus circulating in Kenya associated with ARI between Mar 2007 and Feb 2009. Methods: The study is part of sentinel surveillance for influenza like illness in five geographical regions in Kenya. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from subjects 32 months of age with fever 338degreeC, and cough or sore throat, if presenting to the hospital within 72 hours of onset of illness. Samples were snap frozen before transportation to the NIC and stored at -70degreeC. Multiplex rt-PCR was used to screen 1500 random samples for the presence RSV A/B and Adenovirus. Results: The age of the subjects ranged from two months to 47 years, with a median of 35.7 months. One or more viruses were detected in 22.6% (340/1500) samples, with 51.2% (174/340) showing RSV (26.5% RSV A and 24.7% RSV B), while Adenovirus was 48.8% (166/340). There was a general prevalence of 15% for RSV during the months of June - August, in NRB, WEA and HLD regions, this prevalence being the highest during the study period. The NRB region showed a prevalence of 17.6% for Adeno which was the highest while the NEA region showed a prevalence of 6.4% which was the lowest for RSV during the study period. Samples with dual viruses were 10.9% (37/340) and these were mainly RSV A with RSV B (16.2%), RSV A with Adenoviruses (46%) and RSV B with Adenoviruses (32.4%). Additionally, two samples from children aged 10 and 35 months had multiple infections with the three viruses. Conclusion: A general prevalence of 11.6% for RSV and 11.06% for Adenoviruses was observed during the study period with highest prevalence of approximately 17% in the 5 zonal categories. Dual infection was of rare occurrence with a majority (5.4%) due to coinfection of any of the RSV infected subjects with Adenoviruses.
Wangui, J., Nokes, D. J., Nyaigoti, C. A., Achilla, R., Onyango, C., Wurapa, E., & Bulimo, W. (2012). Prevalence of acute respiratory infections caused by RSV and Adeno viruses in Kenya in 2007-2009. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 16, e118–e119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2012.05.272