Abstract Ion beam scanning or "rastering" is a technique that is frequently used to uniformly cover a larger specimen area during ion irradiation. In this study, we addressed the effects of rastered and defocused beams, using 3.5 MeV iron ions to irradiate pure iron at 450 °C to peak doses of 50 and 150 dpa. We focused on a frequency range relevant to pulsed fusion devices and show its importance to ion irradiation experiments used for simulating neutron damage. The beam was scanned at 15.6, 1.94, and 0.244 Hz and the resulting microstructure was compared with that produced by a non-rastered, defocused beam. At 150 dpa, the defocused beam case resulted in the highest observed void swelling of ∼12% at a depth of ∼700 nm, a depth short of the peak dose position at 1000 nm. The swelling at the peak dose position was significantly reduced by the defect imbalance phenomenon. A maximum swelling rate of ∼0.12%/dpa was measured in this specimen at a depth of 600 nm below the ion-incident surface. Rastering led to much lower swelling levels achieved at significantly lower swelling rates, with the greatest rate of decrease occurring below ∼1 Hz. Furthermore, the impact of the defect imbalance arising from interstitial injection and spatial distribution difference of initial interstitial and vacancy defects was strongly pronounced in the non-rastered case with a lesser effect observed with decreasing raster frequency.
Gigax, J. G., Aydogan, E., Chen, T., Chen, D., Shao, L., Wu, Y., … Garner, F. A. (2015). The influence of ion beam rastering on the swelling of self-ion irradiated pure iron at 450 °C. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 465, 343–348. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.05.025